The mystery of the “Old Bohemian” Trdelník

Anyone who’s spent a little time in Prague has probably seen these rolls of sugar-dusted pastry slowly turning over a coal fire or grill, filling the air with the irresistible smell of cinnamon.

Trdelníky (also known as Staročeské Trdlo) are a big part of the city’s famous Christmas markets; they’re cheap, tasty, and unsurprisingly very popular among visitors. They’re always described as being ‘Old Bohemian’ and very traditional indeed.

But I’d noticed that my Czech friends didn’t seem particularly interested in them. In fact, I’d even heard some whispers that trdelník isn’t really traditional at all, and is actually “just something made up to sell to tourists”.

Could it be true? To be honest, I wouldn’t find it very surprising, but I wanted to know for sure. And if they’re not Czech, then where do they really come from?


One culinary tour guide on the Eating Prague food tour told me that trdelníky are definitely not Czech, and actually come from Transylvania. Meanwhile, a restaurant owner told me the snack was probably imported, or just dreamt up, by the owners of Prague’s Christmas markets as a way to make a quick profit, since the ingredients are so inexpensive.

The pastry’s very own Wikipedia page describes it as a Hungarian sweet pastry, originally called Kürtőskalács, from Székely Land, Transylvania, home of the Székely Hungarians. According to, it was brought to Moravia in the 18th century by the Hungarian general József Gvadányi.

The head of Prague’s Gastronomy Museum, Ladislav Provaan, told Radio Prague in an interview that trdelnik, or at least the method of cooking pastry over an open fire by wrapping it around a wooden stick, goes all the way back to Neolithic times and has been seen in some form or other in most parts of Europe.

“The word ‘Trdelník’ is the only thing about this food which is purely Czech,” he said in an interview with Radio Prague. “It is a very ancient word, and it essentially denotes the use of a wooden stick, mallet or spindle. So this is a very nice word, which has many meanings in the Czech language. For example ‘trdlo’ is a gentle word for someone who is a little bit confused in a given situation.”

Photo 11-09-14 14 36 04

One thing’s for sure: until the last decade or so, trdelník was almost unknown in the Czech Republic. It seems there really is nothing particularly “Old Bohemian” about it after all.

Still, authentically “old Bohemian” or not, trdelník is pretty good, especially on a freezing cold winter’s day. Warm, sugary, chewy on the inside, crunchy on the outside… They must be tried at least once, but now at least you’ll know what you’re eating ;)

You’ll find trdelnik stands at any Christmas or Easter market in the city, with stallholders making the pastries fresh before your eyes. Watching the process is part of the experience and definitely worth the wait: the fresher the trdelnik, the better.

They’re most commonly sold sprinkled with sugar and almonds, but you can find more exotic variations – with coconut, caramel or nutella, for example – at some stalls.

If you’re not visiting during the Christmas or Easter market seasons, don’t worry. You can try a trdelník at any time of year, though not all the places selling them around the Old Town are exactly brilliant – check out this guide which I completely agree with (by the CEA study abroad blog) to the different all-year trdelnik places.

And as a side note, if you’re looking for *real* traditional Czech Christmas sweets, there are lots to try. For example, vánočka is a type of sweet, fruity, buttery, brioche-style Christmas bread, or there are vánoční cukrovi, Christmas cookies. Lots of Czech households have a Christmas-cookie-baking marathon over a day or weekend (or apparently several weekends) making huge amounts of them to give out to family and friends, but you can buy small boxes in good bakeries (like Sweet Life, for example) too.

Dobrou chut’!



9 thoughts on “The mystery of the “Old Bohemian” Trdelník

  1. “Most Czech people don’t seem that interested in them” – well, we all Czechs know that the “old bohemian” sh*t is simply not true so this doesn’t makes us to buy. Trdelník is on the market since 2003 or so. We all know that’s new stuff, nothing traditional. Vánočka, buchteln, cukroví – these are traditional, but also can be expensive if made properly, so there’s no great profit for businessmen.
    And the price of trdelník itself is not that low. Tourists can perceive 50CZK a piece as a low price but it is actually overpriced. There’s strong tradition of home baking in Czech household so nearly everyone can say the true value of a few grams of dough, some icing sugar, cinnamon, and some nuts.. The dough is basically cheaper version of dough as used for buchteln dessert ( ). You need just some all-purpose flour (as cheap as you get get your hands on) and yeast (cheap dried yeast works just fine). So the dough is like 5CZK a piece, some gas, sugar and of cource workforce. And one can see the direct correlation between size of trdelník and location too – the more in in city-center you go, the smaller the trdelník you get. Just the pricetag is a constant in this.

    There is a czech article about the math behind this business. It says that day rent in advent time in Prague is up to 10 000CZK and each stall’s turnover is 65 000CZK a day. The rent+dough costs+manpower etc. is about is 25000CZK a day. So the whole trdelník business is as big as 40 000CZK a day!

    Yes, trdelník is tasty, sweet-scented and I really like that, but I just don’t go and buy it every time I see a stall, but sure I buy one on Christmas market each year. And by the way you can get trdelník also anywhere outside Prague – on markets, fairs and feasts, in other big cities as well as in the country, in smaller cities and villiages, where no tourists go, just loal people. In these cases the price can be lower – I’ve seen 35CZK, or at least the trdelník gets bigger. The pictures in your article show trdelníky with 4-5 “stripes” for 50CZK. I’ve seen 7-8 stripes for 40CZK n the country..

    Come on, it sweet, warm and beautifully scented, who wouldn’t get one! ;)

  2. The cukrovy baking marathon only a day or two? No, depending on how many kinds your’re making (and no maminka or babička with an inch of self respect would make less than 10), it can take about a month. :)

    No surprise about the Trdlník, though.

      1. My mum bakes at least five different types and my grandma used to bake about 10-12 types.. and it take some time to do all that so tehy “have to” begin early..
        Men usually don’t bake but it is not unusual they (have to) help with the dough, kinds also help – some works are suitable and safe for children.

        The most popular kinds are (IMHO) vanilkové rohlíčky (vanilla crescents), “medvědí” pracny (“bear” paws), “linecké” (Linz tarts) AKA “lepené” (basically two flat pieces of baked dough pasted together with berry jam – I LOVE THESE), máčené (“dipped” – quite simillar dough as lepené, but these are half-dipped in chocolate), košíčky (sort of cupcakes, but made from complettely diferent dough, the name literally means “small baskets”, in my family košíčky are filled mostly with stewed fruit but some people fill it with chocolate and nuts).

        Here are pictures of the five kinds I’ve mentioned above:
        vanilkové rohlíčky:
        pracny (not decorated):
        and decorated (here you can clearly see why they are called “bear paws”, but in my family we do not decorate them at all):
        ovocné košíčky:

        And there are plenty of other types of cukroví ;)

    1. Hi Dominik, I don’t think there’s any difference, but I always get them from busy places where they will be fresh. Let me know if you find a particularly good one!

    2. I’ve never seen trdelník in a restaurant. Usually it’s just available on markets during Christmas, Easter etc. There are some places (eg. by the Hussite church in the Vršovice) where you can get trdleník all year long, but these are quite rare I think.

      1. I agree, it seems quite rare. There are also some cafes/creperies in Mala Strana (for example on the streets leading uphill towards the castle) where you can get trdelnik all year, too. They are touristy, but I think the quality is the same as at the Christmas markets.

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